In the field of neuroscience, substance P
(SP) is a neuropeptide: an undecapeptide that functions as a neurotransmitter and as a neuromodulator. It belongs to the tachykinin neuropeptide family. Substance P and its closely related neuropeptide neurokinin A (NKA) are produced from a polyprotein precursor after differential splicing of the preprotachykinin A gene. The deduced amino acid sequence of substance P is as follows:Arg Pro Lys Pro Gln Gln Phe Phe Gly Leu Met
Substance P is released from the terminals of specific sensory nerves, it is found in the brain and spinal cord, and is associated with inflammatory processes and pain.Substance P was originally discovered in 1931 by Ulf von Euler and John H. Gaddum as a tissue extract that caused intestinal contraction in vitro. Its tissue distribution and biologic actions were further investigated over the following decades.