is a polypeptide hormone originating in the beta cells of the pancreas and serving as a principal regulator for the storage and production of carbohydrates. Its secretion is normally stimulated by increases in the amount of glucose in circulation. This leads to higher insulin levels and more rapid tissueassimilation of glucose followed by a decline in the insulin level as the glucose level subsides. In a number of conditions, notably insulinoma and diabetes, this relationship is impaired. Insulin tends to circulate at inappropriately high levels in patients with insulin-secreting pancreatic tumors; such tumors can thus be a cause of hypoglycemia. Accordingly, insulin immunoassays used sometimes in connection with provocative doses of tolbutamide or calcium play an essential role in the identification (and localization) of insulinomas.