Growth Differentiation Factor 3 (GDF3)
Vgr2; Vg-Related Gene 2
Growth differentiation factor-3 (GDF3)
is protein belonging to the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) superfamily. It has high similarity to other TGF-β superfamily members called Vg1 (found in frogs), BMP2, BMP6 and GDF1, but lacks one of the conserved cysteine residues common to all other TGF-β superfamily members.Expression of GDF3 occurs in ossifying bone during embryonic development and in the brain, thymus, spleen, bone marrow and adipose tissue of adults.
GDF3 is a bi-functional protein that inhibits some TGF-β superfamily members (e.g. BMPs) while activating others, thus regulating the balance between different modes of TGF-beta signaling. It has been shown to negatively and positively control differentiation of embryonic stem cells in mice and humans.
Organism species: Homo sapiens (Human)
Organism species: Mus musculus (Mouse)
Organism species: Rattus norvegicus (Rat)